Sexual orientation and homosexuality

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What we mean by "sexual orientation"?
"Sexual orientation" is a term often used to describe romantic attraction, emotional or sexual abuse of a person to another person. Someone who withdraws from someone of the same sex and homosexual orientation can be called 'gay' (women and men), or lesbian. Individuals attracted to persons of the opposite sex are heterosexual orientation. Sexual orientation is a process that continually deepens over time and individuals who are attracted both by men and women are called bisexual. Sexual orientation is different from gender identity, which refers to the internal sensations that indicate that someone is male or female. Sexual orientation is a relatively new concept. In fact, although same-sex behavior have always existed, the idea of gay identity or gay person is only 100 years old.
The concept of sexual orientation is about much more than just sexual behavior. Includes feelings as well as identity. Some individuals may identify themselves as "gay", lesbian or bisexual without engaging in any sexual activity. Some people believe that sexual orientation is innate and determined; however, sexual orientation develops throughout one's life. Individuals probably aware at different moments of their lives that they are heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual.

What is the cause that persons have a particular sexual orientation?
There are numerous theories regarding the origins of sexual orientation to individuals. Many scientists today agree that sexual orientation is very likely to be the result of an interaction complexity surrounding factors, cognitive and biological. In most people, sexual orientation is formed at an early age. There is also evidence to suggest that biological factors, including genetic or inborn hormonal, play a significant role in the sexuality of people.
It is important to recognize that there are many reasons regarding the sexual orientation of individuals, and these reasons may be different for different people.

Is sexual orientation a choice?
No, human beings can not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual. For most people, sexual orientation emerges in early adolescence without any prior sexual experience. However, we can choose to behave according to our senses or not. Psychologists do not consider sexual orientation as a conscious choice that can be changed voluntarily.

What causes homosexuality / heterosexuality / bisexuality?
No one knows the cause of heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality. Once thought to be

Homosexuality was the result of troubled family dynamics or crooked psychological development. It is now clear that these assumptions were based on the lack of information and bias. Currently there is a renewed interest in terms of research on biological etiologjitë homosexuality. However, to date, no repeated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. Similarly any cause psychosocial or family dynamics have been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse. Sexual abuse does not appear to be more prevalent among children that when they grow up identifying as gay, lesbian or bisexual than in children who identify as heterosexual.

Can therapy change sexual orientation?
No; though most homosexuals live their lives in a happy and successful, some homosexual or bisexual may seek to change their sexual orientation through therapy, often forced by their families or by religious groups who pushing vepronjnë so. The reality is that homosexuality is not a disease. Homosexuality does not require treatment and is not changeable. However, not all gay men, lesbians and bisexuals seeking professional medical psychological assistance, want to change their sexual orientation. Gay men, lesbians and bisexual people may seek psychological help during to open dalurit or strategy to be followed in connection with prejudice. But most of them go to therapy for the same reasons and life issues that push and heterosexual people to seek professional psychological help

Stigma still exists (shame) for Homosexuality?
Yes. Fears and misconceptions about homosexuality are widely distributed. They bring terrible challenges to developing and maintaining a positive personal image to people Gay, lesbian or bisexual, and often their families. "Homophobia" is a term that refers to the irrational fear and prejudice against homosexual persons.

What is the position of the American Psychiatric Association in connection with this stigma (shame)?
In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement:


"While homosexuality per se does not imply any deficiency in judgment, stability, safety, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association calls on all international health organizations and individual psychiatrists in other countries, to promote abolition in their country legislation criminalizing homosexual acts between adults with mutual consent in private environments. And furthermore APA calls on these organizations and individuals to make the issue as possible to mitigate the stigma (shame) associated with homosexuality whenever and wherever they occur. "
Such recognition organizational homophobia has been very important in the process of changing attitudes towards homosexuality.

Is it possible to change sexual orientation ("reparative therapy")?
There is no published scientific evidence to date that supports the efficacy of "reparative therapy" as one of the treatments to change sexual orientation, and neither is included in the APA's Task Report, Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. What is more important is the fact that the change of sexual orientation is not a suitable target for psychiatric treatment. Some may require conversion to heteroseksualitet for all the difficulties they face as members of a stigmatized group. Clinical experience shows that those who have integrated their sexual orientation in a positive of vetëfunksionimit have a psychological level more healthy than those who do the opposite. "Psychotherapy accepting homosexuality" can be helpful in the process of "exit", catering to a positive psychological development and support to overcome the effects and consequences that leave behind the stigma. One of the statements issued by the official position of the Association in December 1998 said:

American Psychiatric Association opposes any psychiatric treatment, such as "repair" or "conversion", which is based on the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder, or on the earlier assumptions that the patient should change the orientation of his / her sexual orientation. "

Is homosexuality a disease of the mind or emotional problem?
In both cases the answer is "No!". Psychologists, psychiatrists and other professionals specializing in mental health agree that homosexuality is not an illness, mental distortion or emotional problem. More than 35 years in search of well-organized research has shown that homosexuality, in any point of view has nothing to do with social disorders or emotional problems. Previously it was thought that homosexuality was a disease because mental health professionals of had favored this information.

In the past, research on gay and bisexual kryeshin only to persons who attend therapy, from where it comes and favoring the above conclusions. When researchers began to take input from people who do not attend therapy, found that the idea that homosexuality was a disease he had been wrong.

In 1973 the Board of Governors of the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the official manual diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Second Edition (DSM II). This step was taken after an analysis of scientific literature and consultation with experts in the field. The experts found that homosexuality does not meet the criteria to be considered mental illness.
For more than 25 years, together associations urged mental health professionals undo the stigma of mental illness which many people still associate homosexual orientation.

Can you be gay men, lesbians and bisexuals good parents?
Yes. Comparative studies among adult children of homosexual and heterosexual parents showed that there was no different between the two groups in the development of four critical areas such as: their intelligence, psychological state, social status and popularity among peers. Also it should be noted that parents' sexual orientation does not affect that of the children.

Another myth that erroneously assigned gay men is the fact that they have more tendency in sexual assault of children compared to heterosexual men. There is no evidence indicating that homosexuals or bisexuals are sexually harassed more children than heterosexual men.

What is "Output Tray"?
"Output" is a term used to describe the experience in which a person is identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. This happens not just once, but a process to identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual to family, friends or other members of important social world of everyone, that lasts a lifetime. Experience the "release" of each is unique and always process stimulates anxiety as well as provide opportunities to empower personal and emotional growth. There are many resources available for people in the process of "exit". See below for some of these sources.

Why do some gay men, lesbians and bisexual people show their sexual orientation?
Because this aspect of sharing with others is important to their mental health. In fact, the process of identification of lesbian, gay and bisexual men, which is called "coming out" is closely related to psychological state. As positive identification of the better their mental health and the higher their self-evaluation done.

Why do some gay, lesbian and bisexual is a difficult process of "coming out" (exit tray)?
For some of them it is hard and some do not. Usually lesbians, gay men and bisexual people feel afraid, different and lonely when for the first time noticed that their sexual orientation is different from the norm of society. This is especially true for those who noticed during childhood or adolescence, which is not unusual happened. Depending on the family and community, they may have difficulty to fight against prejudice and lack of information about homosexuality.

Children and adolescents, especially feel very vulnerable to stereotyping. They also fear the rejection of family, friends, work colleagues and religious institutions. Some gay men worry about the fact that you can lose your job or be persecuted at school if their sexual orientation will appear in the light.
Unfortunately, gay and bisexual people are at a higher risk of physical and psychological violence rape compared to heterosexuals. Studies in gjysmëvitet 90 showed that about 1/5 lesbian who participated in the research and more than a quarter of gay men participants had been victims of crimes against their sexual orientation. In another study conducted in 500 young people, half of whom took part in the study agreed to have experienced some form of anti-gay aggression, ranging from verbal violence to physical violence.

What is the experience of parents of persons Gay / lesbian / bisexual?
When people "come out" in front of their parents, can be a huge emotional challenge for all involved. Most parents are concerned about the welfare of their children, recognizing that brings difficulties of being a member of a stigmatized group. Parents often fear rejection from other family members, friends or social or religious groups. What is most important is that children need to know that they have the support and love of their parents. Individual or family psychotherapy can be very helpful when it comes to questions or concerns about a gay child.

What can be done against prejudice and discrimination against homosexuals and bisexuals?
Researches show that people who have positive attitudes toward homosexuals and bisexuals are those who are familiar with at least one or two of them, who may be friends, work colleagues or family. For this reason, psychologists believe negative feedback based just to steretipizimet and lack of information. Therefore, protection against violence and discrimination are very important, as well as minority groups. Some states include violence against an individual on the basis of his sexual orientation as a "hate crimes" and in many countries have established laws against discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Since March 2010, Albania is one of the countries that adopted the law against discrimination of sexual minorities.

Why is it important for society to be informed about homosexuality?
Educate all people about sexual orientation and homosexuality is likely to reduce prejudice against homosexuals. A detailed information about homosexuality is especially important for young people who are in the early stages of the discovery of their sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual or heterosexual. Fear that the information will make gay people is not true; information can not change someone's sexual orientation.

Are all gay and bisexual people affected by HIV?
No. This is a widespread myth. In fact, the risk of exposure to HIV is related to a person's behavior, not their sexual orientation. What to remember about HIV / AIDS is that you can protect yourself by performing safe sex and not using Drugs.

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